I see it in my adult students: they use learning strategies and ploys to learn, and also to acquire English, because 90% or 95% of the class is in the target language, so we create an atmosphere where English is the language vehicle to communicate amid us.
For example, when they ask me to pronounce a word, I do it several times, and they assimilate the pronunciation of the English word to another in Spanish, their L1.
We learn languages by using cognitive strategies, and some which we aren’t aware of. And we get it: we become close to bilingual. / Photo from: www hi-tec com walking in the rain